Monday, May 25, 2020

Gwen Cummings And Substance Use Disorder - 1365 Words

1. Introduction. 28 Days is about a woman named Gwen Cummings (played by Sandra Bullock), an alcoholic, who crashes a stolen limousine while intoxicated on the day of her sister’s wedding. She is then court-ordered to a rehabilitation center for 28 days to be treated for Substance Use Disorder (SUD), specifically for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). At first, she is reluctant from participating in any treatment programs and refuses to admit that she is an alcoholic. This film shows Gwen’s journey to recovery, where she struggles through withdrawal, has many flashback memories, goes through therapy, and also becomes friends with the other patients along the way. Ultimately, she begins to restore a relationship with her sister, Lily, while also realizing that her boyfriend, Jasper, is a bad influence, as she tries to regain her life. 2. Diagnosis. Gwen has a Substance Use Disorder (SUD), specifically Alcohol Use Disorder; she is addicted to alcohol. Gwen’s diagnosis accurately represents the DSM-5 criteria for a severe case of Alcohol Use Disorder (APA, 2013), based on evidence suggesting that she experienced at least 6 out of 11 types of symptoms. Expected to be a bridesmaid in Lily’s wedding, Gwen fails to meet these obligations by showing up late due to drinking and partying the night before. She exhibits a strong craving to drink alcohol, when she is shown drinking in the morning and has a bottle in hand at all times. This also suggests that Gwen has a high tolerance forShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagespermission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, m echanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Rereading America The Myth of Individual Opportunity

Re-Reading America: The Myth of Individual Opportunity What is the American dream? The traditional American dream is one in which someone can start from nothing and build themselves up into a great success, with all the material trappings that go with that success. So, if the American dream is self-built success, then what defines success? In the American dream, success is largely defined by the possession of certain material goods and money. You are considered a success in America if you have enough money to be comfortable financially (i.e., paying all of your bills and having plenty left over for entertainment and material goods), and if you have possession of a nice house in the suburbs, a nice car or two, a pretty and well-dressed family, and the respect and even awe of your community. That is the American dream and the success that defines it. The American dream is large in the minds of the American public, and indeed, of people around the world. It has taken on somewhat of a li fe of its own, and its clear, powerful call has brought people from around the world to the shores of the United States for more than a century, each of them hoping to capture a little bit of the American dream for themselves. While some have (there are famous immigrants in history who have come to America with nothing and created ridiculously successful financial empires that even continue today), most have found that the proverbial American dream is far more myth than reality (BambaraShow MoreRelatedIntroduction to Rereading America901 Words   |  4 Pages Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle in their book â€Å"Rereading America† feel that commencing college is a very disturbing experience. So many things we have to deal while starting college, but the major challenges are expanded difficulty levels and higher expectation which we are not familiar over the years of high school. In order to solve this issue, we have to remodel ourselves by taking up the challenge and rethink about our strength and flaws. To succeed in college we need toRead MoreMyths: Education and Family1664 Words   |  7 PagesInterpreting and understanding myths depend on an individual’s personal views, beliefs, and ideas. With that in mind, the myth regarding the nuclear family and the myth of education and empowerment are all interpreted differently and argued, for and against, in many ways. Both have been perceived negatively by society, yet they have not always been a harmful folktale. Rather, the myth that education can improve someone’s life has been used, year after year, to motivate the youth in order to improveRead MoreThe Myth of the Melting Pot1454 Words   |  6 PagesSeptember 2013 Myths of the Melting Pot Modern America is considered to be a melting pot, in which a variety of races, cultures, or individuals gather into a unified whole. The ideas of being a new American for people who have migrated from their homeland to America are to leave behind all their past cultures and practices and embrace their new American ways. Is that what really happens? If it was, would there be still racism in America? The number of people immigrating to America has risen overRead MoreEssay on Prejudice Destroyed the American Dream1008 Words   |  5 Pages Years ago, the United States of America was the prime example of prosperity and opportunity. In recent years, in the worst recession since the Great Depression, unemployment and interest rates have skyrocketed. The â€Å"American Dream† is an idea that was once a commonly accepted ideology in this country. It has since become only a fallacy. The â€Å"American Dream† is no longer an attainable idea, only a fantasy. The â€Å"American Dream† is not a true dream that will ever be equally attainable by everyone. Read MoreThe Myth of Individualism1209 Words   |  5 PagesThe Myth of Individualism America is famous for the reputation of being the land of opportunity, and for generations immigrants have fled to the United States to experience the freedom and equality our government lays claim to. The fundamental of this reputation is the American Dream, the belief that life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each by hard working regardless of social class or circumstances of birth(by James Truslow Adams). The American DreamRead MoreSteps to Becoming a Critical Thinker in the Textbook, Thinking Critically, Challenging Cultural Myths848 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to the â€Å"Thinking Critically, Challenging Cultural Myths† preface to the textbook ninth edition Rereading America is written by Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, is edited by Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle published in 2008. It introduces how to become a critical reader, and it challenges us to think critically. To understand well what critical thi nking is, the introduction divides into different sections to comprehend how to be a critical thinker steps by steps. The author providesRead More Racial Struggle in America Essay2197 Words   |  9 PagesRacial Struggle in America Yes East and West and North and South, the Palm and the pine, the pole and the equator, the crescent and the cross - how the great Alchemist melts and fuses them with his purging flame! Here shall they all unite to build the Republic of Man and the Kingdom of God. (Rereading America 535) The myth of the melting pot, similarly to The American Dream [i] , brings a lot of immigrants to America hoping to find equality, freedom and opportunity. The promise ofRead MoreSocial Class vs Educational Success1099 Words   |  5 Pagesbetween social class and educational success truly acknowledged in America?   When Mantsios, in â€Å"Class in America,† asks, the question, â€Å"Which of these gifts might a high school graduate in your family receive, a corsage, a savings bond or a BMW† (304), he makes the point that definite socio-economic separations exist in our society. This separation has a direct effect on our educational success. He proves this by presenting myths and facts about the United States social classes. One study concludesRead MoreThe Myth of Money and Success and That of Gender Essay1843 Words   |  8 PagesThe Myth of Money and Success and that of gender â€Å"The world we see that seems so insane is the result of a belief system that is not working. To perceive the world differently, we must be willing to change our belief system, let the past slip away, expand our sense of now, and dissolve the fear in our minds† —William James, an American philosopher and psychologist For a long time, the popular myth of success and that of gender have shapedRead MoreThe Myth of the American Dream Essay2137 Words   |  9 PagesAmerica historically owns the reputation of being the land of opportunity, and for generations immigrants have fled to the United States to experience the freedom and equality our government lays claim to. At the root of this reputation is the American Dream, the belief that with hard work anyone can succeed based solely on his or her merits. While definitions of success vary, the American Dream defines it as the ability to become a self-made man, thereby rising to a more-than-comfortable state

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay On Sound Event Classification - 704 Words

Several CNN approaches have been proposed for sound event classification (SEC), [20, 21] to cite a few. However, most of these works are formulated around strongly labeled data. When done on weakly labeled data they are almost always limited in terms of their scale [22, 23, 4]; offering little insight into how well they might generalize in large scale scenarios and be useful for transfer learning. The DCASE 2017 [7] weakly labeled challenge and works based on it also considers only 17 events from Audioset. [17] analyzes popular CNN architectures such as VGG, Resnet for large scale sound event classification on web videos. However, the training procedure in [17] makes a simplistic strong label assumption for weakly labeled audios. The sound†¦show more content†¦Max pooling are done over a 2  2 window, with a stride of 2 by 2. F1 is also a convolutional layer with ReLU activation. 1024 filters of size 2  2 are used with a stride of 1. No padding is used in F1. F2 is the secondary output layer, a covolutional layer of CS filters of size 11 and sigmoid output. This layer produces segment level output (Cs  K  1), where Cs is the number of classes (in source task) and K is the number of segments. The segment level outputs are aggregated using a global pooling layer to produce Cs1 dimensional output for whole recording. The network scans through the whole input (Logmels) and produces outputs corresponding to segments of 128 frames moving by 64 frames. For example, an input logmel spectrogram of 896 frames, X 2 R896128, will produce K = 13 segments at F1 and F2. Since in weakly labeled audio we have labels for the full recording, the outputs at segment level are pooled to obtain the full recording level output. The loss is then computed with respect to this recording level output. Hence, this network (NS) treats weak labels as weak. Overall, it is a VGG style [25] CNN for weak label learning of sounds. We will refer to this network as NS. The segment size and hop size can be controlled by the network design. For NS these are 128 and 64 respectively. Note that, if needed one can get temporal localization of events during inference though segment level outputs. Unlike SLAT where fully connected dense layers are used inShow MoreRelatedContextual Information On Information And Perception Essay1367 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to Dror et al. (2006), contextual information is defined as, information that provides an understanding of the context of an event or issue. Contextual information unknowingly affects how opinions and perceptions are mad e; it is human nature to associate information with future perceptions, as a way to achieve a sense of security and predictability (Houck Siegel, 2015). In forensic investigations, contextual information affects most areas of forensic science, from blood pattern analysisRead MoreLiterature Is At The Heart Of The Australia English Curriculum And Literacy1180 Words   |  5 Pages Assignment 1A: Essay Literature is at the heart of the Australia English Curriculum and is integral to the teaching of language and literacy. Discuss how the children’s literature can be used to develop an understanding of the components of the language? Children’s literature has existed for as long as there have been stories to be told to children. Stories, books, songs, poems are all made for children. Children’s literature does not have a definite definition of what it is;Read MoreEnglish Segment 1 Study Guide1694 Words   |  7 Pagescultural details of the story and where and when the story takes place, in which   a story occurs.   4. Why is it important to consider the historical context of a text? 5. Define these elements of fiction:  · Plot : The story line or action and events in a story  · Conflict : The main struggle or many struggles a character faces.  · Setting : The location and time where a story takes place  · Characters : The individuals in a work of fiction  · Point of View : The angle or perspective from whichRead MoreUnderstanding Thoughts Through Language938 Words   |  4 PagesChristina Kompanijec English 200 Argumentative essay: draft four If asked which cognitive ability you would miss the most if it were taken away, the majority of people would respond with the obvious choices of sight or hearing, but how many people would think about our sense of language? Language affects our lives in ways that we do not often realize. In the essay â€Å"How Language Shapes Thought† Lera Boroditsky argues that many of our cognitive abilities are enhanced, or hindered depending onRead MoreA Goal Makes Us Become A Better Person1298 Words   |  6 PagesA goal makes us become a better person. I have three goals that I need to achieve in the future. There are independence life, good hospital to practice the mission of nursing, and have a strong relationship. All of them sound really easy, but I do not think I cannot do all of them if I do not have a good plan because â€Å" a goal without a plan is just wish.† Among of three goals, practice the mission of nursing is my number one goal, so what is the mission of nursing? â€Å"BRN Turns 100† by Hedy DumpelRead MoreThe Indian Caste System And The Love Laws Essay1434 Words   |  6 Pageswas existed in its present form in the novel due to the British colonists favoring certain castes above others, categorized groups of people within Indian society and classified some as superior to others, with the Untouchables being the lowest classification of the human. The love laws determined â€Å"who should be loved, and how. And how much† (Roy 33). These histories work in tandem to create the tragedy of Ammu, the twins’ mother, and Velutha’s, an Untouchable and friend to the twins, doomed relationshipRead MoreA Modest Proposal On Satire1239 Words   |  5 PagesSatire is a specific classification of writing that occasionally makes utilization of realistic and performing expressions with the aim of scorning society into self-change. With social criticism being its fundamental objective, it uses dark sarcasm as its primary device to get the point across. Satire impacts people to reconsider themselves so as to alter senseless thoughts and behaviors. Different techniques are utilized in delivering the satirical impact, those of which use wit as their primaryRead More Causality, Hume, and Quantum Mechanics Essay1613 Words   |  7 PagesCausality, Hume, and Quantum Mechanics It is my intention, in the course of this essay, to take the work of David Hume and reapply it to causality using quantum mechanical theory. When I refer to causality, I am referring to the belief that events have a relationship of action A causing action B where A is considered to be the final cause of B. I also refer to the belief that we can know and understand these causal relationships and thusly know how the system works. This isRead MoreQuestions On The Final Exam2872 Words   |  12 Pagescategory of verbs denotes the flow of time related to the event they express. Unlike tense that is semantically rather related to the event in time, aspect is about time moving through the event (Riemer 314). The difference between, for example, â€Å"I walked† and â€Å"I was walking† is in our view of the two events, the first as an event that happened in a certain point in the past while the second viewed with an emphasis on the temporal sense of the event over which it happened. Distinctions can be made betweenRead MoreHow Gender Role Impacts on Identity Essay930 Words   |  4 Pagesstated in her book â€Å"Questioning Identity: Gender, Class, Nation† where she said â€Å"Without difference there would not be such thing as identity†. (Woodward, 2000, pp.51) Unfortunately, however, with these differences there are inequalities. In this essay I would like to elaborate on this further by looking at the meaning of gender and how it impacts identity, some of the stereotypes regarding gender roles and finally, how gender role impacts on identity in terms of career. I have chosen this topic

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Property Rules in UK

Question: 1. Research, analyse and discuss in an informed manner selective aspects of Land Law. Answer: Adverse Possession The doctrine of adverse possession states that when someone occupies the land that belongs to someone else without taking his permission and such person continues to live for at least 10 to 12 years then under such conditions the land becomes theirs. This doctrine is governed by rules of property laws in the country. This doctrine allows another person to possess the real property of another without the payment of any compensation. This is because the property is held in a manner that conflicts with the right of the owners for a specified time span. For instance the rights of squatters fall under the type of adverse possession. In the case of JA Pye (Oxford) Ltd v Graham, the House of Lords defined adverse possession under the Land Registration Act 1925. Lord Browne-Wilkinson in this case stated that firstly factual possession means that there should be physical possession of the property. Additionally it was also held that even though the word adverse reflects force, the squatters should never use aggressive methods towards the paper owner of the property. The Rationale behind Adverse Possession This doctrine was developed hundreds of years ago when most of the land was unregistered and the only method to establish legal ownership was to inspect the deed and transfer the property to the current owner. This rationale was dismissed when the comprehensive land registration rules were established that contained all the details of the ownership and boundaries. These details were kept with the Land Registry and the register was open for the inspection of the public. Issue The primary issue in this case was whether the squatter who intends to purchase the house from the fee simple owner at a reduced price is entitled to purchase that property and what are the rights of the students as a squatter in that property. Facts of the case In the given case, four university students had rented a house in 2012 to study in UK. As a result of some complaints from residents, the University of East Westland disallowed their students from living there. With no options left the started living as squatters in the large Edwardian house. Moreover, the squatters living there were also committing nuisance which was a matter of concern for the neighbors. Later a squatter without informing the students offered to purchase the house from the fee simple owner at a reduced price. Property rules in UK and the application of the law in the given case Adverse possession has been a significant part of the property law in England and Wales. Throughout years it has undergone a number of changes with regard to legislations as well as case laws. In the case of Powell v McFarlane, Justice Slade had stated a similar fact as Lord Browne-Wilkinson in the Pye case, that factual possession means physical possession. This possession is single and exclusive though it can be on behalf of several people jointly. It was held in the case that there must be evidence of the intention to possess and the squatter who claims must exclude all the others present in the land along with the owner. Again in the case of Mount Caramel Investments Ltd v. Peter Thurlow Ltd., it was held that when the adverse possession has been for different people, the consecutive periods need to be added together. In the case of Bucks County Council v. Moran the court again stressed on the intention to possess and held that the squatters have to prove that they had physical control over the property. Chief Justice Cockburn in the case of Seddon v. Smith had stated that essential evidence in adverse possession was enclosure. In the case of BP Properties v. Buckler the court held that in cases of adverse possession the time will stop running for the squatters once they get lawful possession of the property. With regard to human rights issue the rights of squatters were raised in number of cases. In the case of Ofulue v. Bossert the court relied on the decision of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Pye v United Kingdom and held that the law of adverse possession does not breach Article 1, Protocol 1 of Human Rights. Further in the case of Lodge v. Wakefield City Council the court held that even when there is a mistaken belief of ownership of legal estate then adverse possession may be established. Before the Land Registration Act 2002 came into force the land owner could simply lose title without being aware of it. According to the Land Registration Act of 2002 as given under the Schedule 6, paragraphs 1 to 5, when the adverse possessor has lived for ten years he would be entitled to apply to the land registrar in order to become the new registered owner of the property. Under such circumstances the registrar would contact the registered title holder and send notification of the application. When it is seen that no proceedings were launched for two years to eject this adverse possessor then the registrar would transfer the title. These rules apply for registered land. However, there are a number of restrictions before an application is made based on adverse possession. Firstly the registered proprietor must not be an enemy or from enemy state or should not suffer any mental disability, or is a defendant in any proceedings regarding a right to the possession of land or the estate was held on trust. Applying these above rules and case laws, the given case may be analyzed. Firstly, the squatters were in possession of the Edwardian house for a period of seven years. According to the English law given in the legislations and case laws in order to claim for the ownership rights it is essential that the squatter has held factual possession of the property for a period of ten years. Since these squatters have been in possession for seven years they cannot claim adverse possession on the property. Hence even the four students cannot claim adverse possession since they were squatters for a very less time period. Further as already stated in the cases when different people have occupied the property all the consecutive period would be considered while calculating the total time period of possession. Here the total time period is seven years but not ten years. Secondly since according to the case laws the law of adverse possession does not breach the human rights law and hence the owner who is suffering from illness cannot claim for such rights under the law. Also a new law was introduced in 2012. According to section 144 of the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012, any individual who enters any residential building as squatters may be punished with six months imprisonment and 5,000 fine or both. Conclusion Relying on the above facts and regulations in the country and the given circumstances in the case, it can be construed that the four students are in the wrong side of the law. Since they have been living as squatters since 2013 for barely a year, the laws relating to adverse possession would not be of much helpful to them and in accordance to the new criminal law on squatting they would also have the fear to be jailed for squatting. References Bouckaert B,Property Law And Economics(Edward Elgar 2010) Bray J,Unlocking Land Law Epstein R,Economics Of Property Law(Edward Elgar 2007) Katz L, 'The Moral Paradox Of Adverse Possession: Sovereignty And Revolution In Property Law' (2010) 55 McGill Law Journal McFarlane B, Hopkins N and Nield S,Land Law(Oxford University Press 2009) Sexton R and Bogusz B,Complete Land Law(Oxford Univ Press 2009) Smith R,Introduction To Land Law(Pearson Longman 2010) Swerling L, 'The Land Registration Act 2002 And Adverse Possession' (2003) 9 Trusts Trustees BP Properties v Buckler(1987) 55 P CR Bucks County Council v Moran(1990) 86 LGR JA Pye (Oxford) Ltd v Graham[2003] AC Lodge v Wakefield City Council(1995) 38 EG Mount Caramel Investments Ltd v Peter Thurlow Ltd[1988] P CR Ofulue v Bossert(2008) EWCA Civ Powell v McFarlane(1977) 38 P CR Pye v United Kingdom(2008) 46 EHRR Seddon v Smith(1877) 36 LT

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Beatlemania In The 1960s Essays - Counterculture Of The 1960s

Beatlemania in the 1960s The Beatles were a mystical happening that many people still don't underezd. Phenomenoligists had a ball in 1964 with Beatlemania, a generally harmless form of madness which came from Britain in 1963. The sole cause of Beatlemania is a quartet of young Englishmen known as the Beatles. In the less than one year that they achieved popularity in England to the time they came to America, The Beatles achieved a popularity and following that is unprecedented in the history of show business in England. They became the first recording artists anywhere in the world to have a record become a million-seller before it's release. They became the target of such adoration by their fans that they had to cancel all one-night bookings because of riots in early 1964. Beatlemania had reached unbelievable proportions in England, it became a form of reverse lend-lease and spread to the United States. Capitol records followed the Beatles' single record with the release of an album, "Meet the Beatles," in late January of 1964. That event was followed by the Beatles themselves, who arrived in New York February 8, 1964 for three appearances with Ed Sullivan. The first show was scheduled for Sunday, February 9, the second was telecast from Miami a week later, and the third pre-taped for an airing in March. These concerts were the most watched television programs ever (70 million viewers) until recently. The Beatles' arrival in the United States was presaged by a deluge of advance publicity. Newsweek, Time, and Life have chronicled Beatlemania, UPI, and the AP(Associated Press) had done their part for the cause (including an AP wirephoto of J. Paul Getty sporting a Beatle wig), and even Vogue shoved high fashion aside momentarily in it's January, 1964 issue and carried a full-page photo of the group. Baltimore's respected Evening Sun took notice of the coming of the Beatles on it's editorial page at that time. Said the Sun: "The Beatles are coming. Those four words are said to be enough to jelly the spine of the most courageous police captain in Britain... Since, in this case, the Beatles are coming to America, America had better take thought as to how it will deal with the invasion... Indeed, a restrained 'Beatles, go home,' might be just the thing." Precisely how, when, and where Beatlemania got started nobody- not even their late manager Brian Epstein(who died of a drug overdose in 1967) can say for sure. The Beatles are a product of Liverpool, which had a population of some 300 rock and roll bands( or "beat groups," as Liverpudlians are wont to call them). The beat groups hawked their musical wares in countless small cellar clubs, old stores and movie houses, even in a converted church, nearly all of which are in proximity to the Mersey River. Out of all these groups came, somehow, the Beatles. And they had to go to Germany to do it. In order to better their Liverpool take-home pay of around $15. per week apiece, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo (so called because of his penchant for wearing at least four rings) Starr took a tramp steamer to Hamburg and a job which moved them up a bit financially, if not in class. There, in a raucous and rowdy strip joint, the Indra Club, the Beatles became the first entertainers to play louder than the audience. There, too, they were "discovered" by English promoter and talent agent, Brian Epstein, who has since become deservedly known as "the fifth Beatle." Under Epstein's shrewd guidance, the Beatles soon found themselves signing a contract with Britain's giant Electric Musical Industries, Ltd., the largest recording organization in the world and major stockholder in Capitol Records, Inc.; headlining concerts throughout Britain; and appearing on television. Their first recording, "Love Me Do," was issued by EMI's Parlophone label in October, 1962. It sold a respectable 100,000 copies, and it was the last time a Beatle single sold less than half million copies. The first million-seller, "She Loves You," came out in the spring of 1963. It was followed by two albums, "Please, Please Me" and "With the Beatles." Both LP's sold over 300,000

Monday, March 9, 2020

Wilbur and Orville Wright Essays

Wilbur and Orville Wright Essays Wilbur and Orville Wright Essay Wilbur and Orville Wright Essay On December 17, 1903, air power history was made when two brothers, Wilbur and Orville Wright, succeeded in the test of the first powered heavier-than-air flight outside of the town of Kitty Hawk in the American province of North Carolina ( Smithsonian Institution, 2010 ) . Word of this flight would distribute around the Earth and it would be credited as the beginning of the air power industry. Born near Millville, Indiana, in 1867, Wilbur was the first of the brace to come in the universe as the 3rd kid of Milton and Susan ( nee. Koerner ) , with Orville following four old ages subsequently as the 4th kid, being born in Dayton, Ohio. The brothers had an uneventful childhood, but one event that they would remember as the initial flicker of their involvement in flying’ ( Crouch, 2003 ) would be a plaything helicopter’ , based on the work of Gallic aviator Alphonse Penaud, that their male parent brought place from his occupational traveling in 1878. Made from paper and bamboo, the brothers played with it until it broke and so made another to replace it. After they had reached maturity, the state of the United States of America had been in a bike fad due to the innovation of the safety bike. The brothers took advantage of this and during the December of 1896 opened the Wright Cycle Exchange ( U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003 ) , which was used to supply financess towards their involvement in flight. With intelligence of sailplane flights by three work forces around the mid 1890s, Otto Lilienthal, Samuel Langley and Octave Chanute, and later the decease of Lilienthal in an accident, set in the brothers’ heads, Wilbur wrote to the Smithsonian Institution ( Wright, 1899 ) bespeaking information about astronauticss. After roll uping the mention stuff requested from the Smithsonian, including the plant of Leonardo da Vinci, Lilienthal, Langley and Chanute, every bit good as other beginnings, the brothers studied the plants of their predecessors, detecting the fact that small advancement had been made in astronauticss befo re 1800, despite man’s antique involvement in flight ( Smithsonian Institution et Al ) . The brothers favoured Lilienthal’s scheme, and planned to prove sailplanes before get downing on proving powered flight in order to get the hang control, with the belief that a successful, and safe, flight could be achieved with a dependable method of pilot control. ( Crouch et Al ) Despite holding with Lilienthal’s scheme, they did differ with his manner of control, and were determined to happen something more efficient. An thought that was thought by them to be good is banking, or propensity, likewise to the manner birds fly, every bit good as a bicycler, while leting recovery from leaning from air current. The find of flying warping, which allowed them to accomplish the same consequence, was by Wilbur idly writhing a long inner-tube box at the bike shop’ ( Tobin, 2004 ) . Flying warping was so tested on a five pes biplane kite, in which the warping was controlled via four affiliated cords. In 1900, they went to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to get down manned testing of the sailplanes. This location was chosen due to Wilbur bespeaking weather informations from the US Weather Bureau ( Wright, 1903 ) , recommendation from Chanute, its isolation and the fact that it was the closest suited site to Dayton. The sailplanes were based on old sailplane designs, every bit good as their kite. The basic design that was adopted was the Chanute-Herring biplane bent sailplane ( Jakab, 1997 ) . Of the three different designs tested, the first two did non include any kind of tail, due to an wrong premise by Wilbur ( Wright, 1901 ) . The first theoretical account of their sailplanes ( besides referred to as the 1900 sailplane ) was flown like a kite, with few of the trials holding the trade manned, and was ab initio used to prove flying falsifying. Wilbur did make some free glide, nevertheless. The undermentioned twelvemonth brought a new theoretical account of sailplane, with a larger wing country and more trial flights being made to it. The development of the 3rd and concluding sailplane theoretical account, the 1902 sailplane, involved proving 200 different wings in a basic air current tunnel, which led to the find of the benefit of a larger aspect ratio. Finally, the sailplane was built, with a larger flying span once more and now with the inclusion of a rudder to help turning ( Howard, 1988 ) . It besides marked the terminal of the usage of informations gathered by Lilienthal, and alternatively used chiefly data the Wright brothers collected themselves, every bit good as a major milepost in the signifier of accomplishing full control for the pilot. 1903 saw the building of the Wright Flyer, which would be the first powered aircraft to be flown. Using wooden propellors and with a peak efficiency of 82 per centum ( modern wooden propellors have peak efficiency of 85 per centum ) , these were one time once more designed under air current tunnel proving. The engine had ended being built by the machinist of their bike store, Charlie Taylor, after several engine makers failed to run into the brother’s demands ( Crouch et Al ) . This engine was a less sophisticated theoretical account of modern fuel injection systems, and was made from aluminum to maintain weight down. When eventually completed, the Wright Flyer came in at a weight of 274 kgs, sported a 12 horsepower engine and cost less than one thousand dollars ( Tobin et al ) . Come the twenty-four hours of December 14 at their cantonment in the nearby Kill Devil Hills, Wilbur won the coin flip that led him to be the pilot of the first of all time powered heavier-than-air flight, even though the flight merely lasted three seconds and had damaged the trade ( Kelly, 2002 ) . Following flights after fixs had been made, though, had lasted longer, with Orville’s first flight enduring twelve seconds with a distance of 37 meters travelled, and the concluding flight on December 17 measured to be 852 pess ; the clip of the flight was 59 seconds’ ( Kelly, 1943 ) . Those first three seconds of flight, nevertheless, were the most of import, as one of the greatest accomplishments in the history of world was accomplished at that clip. Bibliography Crouch, Tom D.The Bishop s Boys: A Life of Wilbur and Orville Wright. New York: W. W. Norton A ; Company, 2003. ISBN 0-393-30695-X. Wilbur Wright May 30, 1899 Letter to Smithsonian. Smithsonian Scrapbook: Letterss from the Archives. Retrieved: February 25 2014. The Wright Brothers A ; The Invention of the Aerial Age. Smithsonian Institution.Retrieved: February 25 2014. The Van Cleve Bicycle that the Wrights Built and Sold. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission,2003. Retrieved: February 26 2014. Tobin, James.To Suppress The Air: The Wright Brothers and the Great Race for Flight. New York: Simon A ; Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-5536-4. Telegram from Orville Wright in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to His Father Announcing Four Successful Flights, 1903 December 17 . World Digital Library. 1903-12-17. Jakab, Peter L.Visions of a Flying Machine: The Wright Brothers and the Process of Invention( Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series ) . Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian, 1997. ISBN 1-56098-748-0. Wright, Wilbur. Some Aeronautical Experiments. Western Society of Engineers,September 18, 1901. Kelly, Fred C. , erectile dysfunction.Miracle At Kitty Hawk, The Letters of Wilbur A ; Orville Wright. New York: Da Capo Press, 2002. ISBN 0-306-81203-7. Howard, Fred,Wilbur And Orville: A Biography of the Wright Brothers. New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. ISBN 0-345-35393-5. Kelly, Fred C.The Wright Brothers: A Biography Authorized by Orville Wright. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, originally published in 1943, 1989. ISBN 0-486-26056-9.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Literacy and ESOL Theories and Frameworks Essay

Literacy and ESOL Theories and Frameworks - Essay Example The learning theories and frameworks can in another way be termed as the philosophical or conceptual orientations that seek to explain the ways of human learning. One of the popular and applicable theories of teaching English is known as the Behaviourist Theory, and was influenced European empiricism around 1914. In this theory, [English] writing, which includes both writing and speaking, occurs as a response to environmental stimuli (Harasim, 2012, p. 13). This means that it can be observed, described, and manipulated. As an English instructor, one can apply this theory in ensuring effective learning is achieved. In explanation, teaching can be perceived of as a process that involves practice, repetition, and rewards. In practice, the instructor should ensure that the teaching they give is put to use such as in writing compositions or oral reading. In repetition, learning can be effected by going over what is being taught over and over again. Finally, rewards should be applied by me thods such as testing what has already been taught. These tests determine the level of learning that has been influenced. The second effective learning/teaching framework in an ESOL language is defined by the Cognitive Theory. This theory has been applied in this context since the 1950s. In its application, the Cognitive Theory defines learning as complex and deep psychological phenomena such as schemas (organized patterns of thought or behaviour), processes for learning, and motivation. In short, English learning can be effectively taught through phases occurring with gradual complexity. In a good way, linguistic learners learn English from playing an active role in the process as well as making their own mistakes. In applying such, memory and problem-solving skills are put into consideration. Instructors apply this theory by subdividing it into three variables, namely