Sunday, May 26, 2019

Islamic Civilazation

Islamic civilization (Midterm) Before 610 (AD or CE) pre Islamic Period landscape painting Desert Arid landscape What do life possible Camels (endurance and several images in the Quran), horses Nomadic way of life from the highland and to lowland (movement) looking for water supply and pastures the camel made life in the arabian peninsula possible he made the mvt & trade possible Transhumance mvt from high to lowl depending on the season fetching for water & grazing. this mvt was made possible thanks to humans & animals pockets of sedentary life in 2 main citiesYATHRIB Oasis water makes life possible many palm trees MECCA it is where the Kaba is laid (hajj) + trade be flummox when people come to worship their gods, they bring goods to exchange (religion + trade) Customary laws 3orf transmitted orally from generation to generation severally tribe respect each tribes land Social organization Smallest unit in Arab society Nuclear family (p bents + children + concubines) lives in BAY T Polygamy is lawful from a religious point of discover (4 wives) Before 610, women had so status & were considered as property that you own.Female infanticide (bury the female babies because the families want male heirs) Patriarchy male dominate the state (society) Extended family several tents besotted to each other Dar Several extended families Clan (Hashim clan of the prophet) Several Clans tribe (Quraysh tribe of the prophet) Several tribes confederacies union (Qahtan & Adnan) Asabiyya group solidarity defend the fractions of your group against abandon or aggression. Retaliation eye for an eye the system of justice that was based on the concept of asabiyya. Belief system Monotheists Jews, Christianity and Islam Polytheism believe in many gods heathenism believe in animate (cow) and inanimate (rock) Atheism believe in any God Idolatry Form of polytheism believe in idols (statues) Life in Makkah HUB meeting place KABA market place and shrine (360 idols) Habitants oral society Muallaqat be sick famous poems on the KABA (platform for poets to come & talk approximately their tribes self-promotion) Bibliography of the prophet Sira. He was orphan impact on his life in Sira -Life of the prophet 570 the year of the elephant and birth of the prophet in the tribe of Quraysh.During that year, Abraha, the king of Yemen marched on Mecca with his large army and elephants in order to destroy the Kaba provided his elephant(s) stopped at the boundary of Mecca and refused to enter. His parents Amina and Abdullah his father died before he was born and his mother when he was 6 -Orphan starting at disadvantage, he was from the Quraysh tribe raised by his grand parents (Abd al Mutalib and Fatima) He was sent to the desert healthy physical and psychological conditions to raise children Hamza his uncle played a mentor role He was being prepared for something big, kind of divine protection even before receiving the message He was know for his honesty, humanit y and anti-corruption Nickname Al Amine, the trustworthy in Mecca His inheritance a slave Baraka, who was a little older than him His spent most of his season in the cave of Hira thinking and wondering about the meaning of life He was against polytheism He is the seal of the prophets (last one) 2 major stories The night journey (621) Muhammads travel The Isra and Miraj Muhammad travels on the steed Buraq to the farthest mosque where he leads other prophets in prayer.He then ascends to heaven where he speaks to God, who gives Muhammad instructions to take back to the faithful regarding the details of prayer. The storey of the black stone before Islam, the Kaba was restored many times and Muhammad had the honor to put the stone inside the Kaba. all clans wanted to have the honor to put the stone in the Kaba and they were ready to fight for the privilege but then, Muhammad advised them to put the stone in a cloth and have a member of each clan pick up a corner of the cloth and take it to its place when Muhammad took it and placed it. He married Khadija in 595, commencement exercise wife and only wife until her dying. She was successful and from the clan Assad. She was a business woman and impressed by his integrity He spent most of his life as a shepherd He lost his wife and uncle 3am al Houzn or the year of grief House of the prophet wife + 4 daughters (Fatima, Zaynab, Ruqaya, Umkaltoum) + cousin (Ali) / he also had 2 sons who died in infancy Abu Talib (uncle) never converted to Islam but still protected his nephew (the prophet) General dates 10 632 revelation of the Quran. Muhammad receives call to prophethood through first revelation of the Quran, continues to receive prophecies for 22 years. Khadija is the first to believe in Muhammads prophethood, becoming first convert to Islam. 611 613 the message was kept secret 614 First Hijra of 83 families (early Islamic community) to Aksum (Abyssinia) because the king Negus Armah was tolerant and ju st. He welcomed the muslims and protected them (the prophet wasnt part of the journey).Purpose survival of islam. Reaction of Meccan society to call to prophethood the polytheists were very resistant because islam means no more poly + all idols have to be destroyed = people would stop coming to Mecca = no trade Abolishmt of usury (RIBA loan by excessive interest) while they are benefiting from it Some Meccan clans didnt want the Hashim clan to gain power and rise Islam was revolutionary for another category of people since the religion promotes equality poor, women, slaves, orphans 19 deaths of Muhammads wife (Khadija) and uncle (Abu Talib), departure Muhammad without a protector he tries to leave Mecca 622 Second Hijra of early muslims to Medina. The city welcomed him because of his good reputation trustworthy arbitrator, wise, charismatic (between 614 & 622, the msg was growing & the power of the prophet as well. The other clans of mecca decided to boycott the Hashim clan no tr ade, marriages) first year of islamic calendar. 632 Death of the prophet The clans of medina Aws + Khazraj = the helpers/Ansar the migrants jewish clansProphet at war A chapter came in the Quran giving permission to Muslims to fight back because they were oppressed only because they believed in Allah. jihad strive, effort, struggle to follow Islam can include defense of the faith, gird struggle, holy war. The lesser Jihad outer defend yourself against aggression The greater Jihad inner the one all muslims are required to perform on a daily basis (how to become a better muslim and person) ANDJihad as ind duty prayer Collective duty prayer for the unawares 624 BadrAttack on Meccan people (caravans). muslims were outnumbered but victorious 625 Uhud It was almost a defeat. Muhammad was almost killed. In fact, the Meccans decided to withdraw believing that he was dead. Death of Hamza (prophets uncle) 2 Jewish clans of Medina have been expelled because they were communicating secret ly with the Meccans 627 Ditch = Khandaq Muslims victorious over meccans and bedouin mercenaries Muhammed consolidates leadership in medina Aisha accused of adultery in Affair of Necklace, but exonerated by Quranic revelation 28 Truce of faith Hudaybiyya Treaty of Hudaybiyya Muslims are allowed to come to Mecca to perform pilgrimage (Hajj). The war stopped for 10 years 630 chess opening of Mecca Opening of Makkah. Became Muslim city all this idols were destroyed. It was opened because someone broke the truce and attacked a muslim. They didnt kill the enemies & didnt burn the city. The 5 pillars of Islam 1. Profession of faith 2. Prayer 5 times a day 3. Zakat (2. 5% of your assets) 4. Fasting during Ramadan 5. Hajj Rightly guided Caliphates Abu Bakr 632 634 32 death of the prophet who didnt explicitly name his successor. He gave signals Abu Bakr he used to lead the prayer when the prophet was sick + was the head of the delegation of the Hajj when the prophet had health issues + ano ther problem was that the revelation stopped so from that point on, there was human elaboration of sharia During his period wars of forgoing = Ridda Many people (Bedouins) stopped paying Zakat when the prophet died. He became firm toward these people because he was worried the situation would end up becoming mass defection.The whole establishment of Islam could collapse. One of the figures of the Wars of Apostasy was Musaylima. He was killed during the battle of Al-Yamama which put an end to the Wars of Apostasy (633) Proselytizing illegal for a non-Muslim to influence people to convert to another religion Sabiqqa He was one of the first men to convert to Islam Known for his piety and generosity Father in law of the prophet He chose the name Khalifa when he became caliph He nominated Umar as the following Caliph on his death bedUmar 634 644 Commander of the Faithful Amir Al Muminin Charismatic and known for being impulsive + always available & approachable Military guide, acti vely involved in Futuh (openings) Cities conquered by Islam during the caliphate period of Umar Damascus (636) and Jerusalem (638) Dhimma non-muslims have the right to live in Dar Al Islam in return they need to pay Jizya & they are exempted from Jihad (freedom of worship, freedom of movement, freedom of ownership) In 644, Umar was faithly injured so he appointed the comity to elect the next caliph Uthman Accomplishment of Umar Muslim troops Egypt / Iran debut of a taxation system and establishment of treasury Creation of a welfare system (assistance social) The recording of the beneficiaries Institution of the judicial system appointed the 1st judge Adopted the Muslim calendar (622 = First year) Uthman 644 656 He got the idea of gathering the Quran Wealthy Meccan person He is from the Umayya clan Know for his piety but lack of charisma.He was old when he became caliph Easily manipulated by the leading members of the clan of Umayya He appointed members of his clan in key positio ns, which made the Meccan universe very angry especially the early converted. It was a turning point a group of rebels from Egypt came to his house and killed him in 656. Beginning of FITNA = Civil War semiofficial copy of the Quran All Qurans available in the world today are exactly identical to the Uthmani version Ali 656 661 Cousin and son in law of the prophet. His sons Hassan and ibn Talal Hussein Sabiqa 1st teenager to convert to IslamHe faced 2 opponents 1 There was animosity and bitterness between Aisha and Ali. Aisha went to Basra in Irak and tried to steer the population against Ali. only she failed and her movement was crashed during the battle of the camel. 2 Umayyad movement under the leadership of Muawiyya. He was a key figure in Umayya clan. He made Uthman appoint him as the governor of Sirya Muawiyya he wanted to become a caliph. According to him, Ali didnt deserve to become caliph because he failed to arrest and prosecute the killers of Uthman. Muawiyya had peopl e joining his cause & supporting him.The 2 armies (Ali and Muawiyya) met in Siffin (name of the battle and the place). Both parties decided to ceasefire and tried to negotiate but the problem was that 12000 members of Alis army defected and attacked him because they didnt agree with his decision. They were called the Kharijites (seceders) arbitrament Tahkim 657-661 false peace between both armies. The battle of Nahrawan opposed Ali with his men and the Kharijites. They wanted to kill Ali and Muawiyya but Muawiyya was always protected and Ali didnt take the grant measures and was killed in 661.Muawiya declared himself Caliph and instituted the dynastic caliphate. The death of Ali marked the end of the rightly guided caliphate PERIOD Ali had two sons Hassan (who renounced everything in exchange of a secured retirement) and ibn Talal Hussein (when Al Yazid took over, he fought him with a small army but was killed in 680 during the Battle of Karbala) Caliphate Khilafa Mutawakil Al Mou 3tazila doctrine that he applied in the whole pudding stone Medina, Kufa and Damascus Medina under the rightly guided Caliphate (the 1st 3 and the prophet) Kufa Ali Damascus When Muawiyya declared himself caliph Islam is against any smorgasbord of division. Ideally, the muslim community should remain as one block. Muslims ?Sunni (majority of Muslims 93%) ?Shiite (7%) ?Kharijites (less than 1%) The institutions of the Caliphates I Rightly guided Caliphates 632 661 II Umayyads 661 750 III Abbasids 750 1258 I The powers of Caliphs 2 main powers expansion of Islam (fighting apostasy / Jihad (Futuh) slaying of Sharia (Islamic law) II & III Growth of the empire and creation of the organization (6 powers)To guard religion against innovation (Bida) in religious matters To participate in readiness of doctrine but not in the formulation of law (judges are in charge of that) To lead the Friday prayer in the greatest mosque of the city (but with harvest-home of empire, beginning of delegation) To lead military campaigns (Futuh) to defend the empire (also delegation to high officers, military leaders) To ensure the normal functioning of the Judiciary system with the nomination of judges To ensure the well-being of the state through tax collection and expenditure of this tax on garden, monuments, helping the poor, etc Quran Actual word of God Revelation Wahy from 610 to 632 This word of God is revealed to the prophet. The revelation was depending on circumstances & it was not chronological God does not speak directly to mortals. There is always some sort of intermediary. Prophet had scribes (secretaries) and was involved in the classification and the arrangement of the Quran Abrogation Naskh word translated and sometimes changed. E. g. the term Khamr is sometimes

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.